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The location of the items on the page determines the reading order.

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It is critical that content is accessible to the widest possible audience and complies with accessibility standards and regulations, such as WCAG 2. Producing accessible content also plays a key role in optimizing PDF documents for successful indexing by Internet search engines.

Achieving this kind of accessibility requires tagging all document content based on its hierarchical structure headings, paragraphs, lists, tables, and so on and ordering the content in a linear path from start to finish. An additional requirement for accessible documents is identifying nontext content, such as graphics and images, in context and describing what is shown.

InDesign offers a direct and simple workflow that dramatically reduces the time and effort required to produce accessible PDF documents from an InDesign layout. Most of the tasks are executed within InDesign, with only a few final steps required in Adobe Acrobat. This allows hierarchical and structural information to reside in the InDesign file, making updates faster and easier when you need to generate a revised accessible PDF document. You can perform the majority of the work necessary to properly structure and prepare a document for accessibility can be done directly in InDesign, reducing the post-export work required in Acrobat to just a few steps.

Use paragraph styles consistently throughout your document. Consistent use of InDesign paragraph styles throughout a document is critical for efficiently and successfully exporting the content to PDF.

Base styles on their hierarchical structure main headline, secondary headings, subheading, and so on and apply them appropriately to paragraphs according to their hierarchical role in the document.

Tables and bulleted and numbered lists are recognized automatically in the export process and tagged appropriately. Anchor images within the content flow. Images in a print layout can appear anywhere in a spread, and sighted users can make the connection between the image and relevant text as they read.

Screen readers process content in a linear fashion. Because screen readers use text-to-speech facilities to describe images, they should be placed as close as possible to the text that pertains to the image. Add alternative text for images. Screen readers can only indicate the presence of an image. Conveying what the image depicts requires providing alternative text alt text. With the Object Export Options in InDesign, you can specify alt text from metadata in an image file or add custom alt text to any image, graphic, or group of objects in a layout.

Incorporate internal document navigation mechanisms. In an accessible PDF, tables of contents, bookmarks, hyperlinks, and cross-references can act as navigation mechanisms to the referenced content.

They also allow screen reader users to efficiently navigate the document by using the links these mechanisms create. Establish content order in the Articles panel. The tagging order of a PDF document is essential to its readability. The Articles panel in InDesign enables you to precisely define which content in your document gets tagged and in what order. You can add content by dragging and dropping frames and objects into the Articles panel and then arranging them in the desired reading order.

You can also break the content up into smaller articles without affecting the page layout. Specify a document title and description as metadata. For accessibility, as well as for search engine optimization, a PDF file requires a document title and a description of its contents.

When you save this information in the InDesign File Information dialog, it is automatically transferred to Acrobat as required metadata. Export as PDF with settings optimized for accessibility. When you use the InDesign PDF export options print or interactive , the tagging, organizing, and bookmarking established in the layout become the tagging structure, order, and navigation scheme of the resulting PDF document. Set the language in Document Properties.

You must specify the language in the Advanced options of the Acrobat Document Properties dialog. Change display name from Filename to Document Title. By default, Acrobat displays the PDF filename in the title bar of the document window. Set the tab order to use the document structure in the Page Thumbnails pane. The structure established in the InDesign Articles panel is saved in the exported PDF file, but you must instruct Acrobat to honor that structure.

Run the Acrobat accessibility check. After these steps are completed, confirm that the document has no errors by choosing Full Check from the Acrobat accessibility tools. Defining export tags in a paragraph style creates an association between the text using that style and its role in the semantic structure of the PDF document.

You can set any paragraph style to one of eight basic PDF tags. If you do not assign export tags, all styles default to Automatic. There is no additional parsing of the document to determine a heading structure.

Because of this default behavior, explicitly assigning export tags to paragraph styles is an essential accessibility step. Manually created lists are not recognized as list items. Although the role assigned to a specific paragraph will likely be similar between the two, PDF has fewer options and no custom tagging options.

If a project already has styles, you can map all styles in the document in one step by choosing Edit All Export Tags in the Paragraph Styles panel menu. In the resulting dialog, select the PDF option and assign PDF tags from the pull-down menus in the right column to the paragraph style names in the le column. In Acrobat, the Role Map reflects the associations made between the InDesign Header style and the H1 tag and between the Section headers style and the H2 tag, both of which were assigned in the Export Tagging options for the respective styles in InDesign.

Images in an accessible PDF document require alternative text so that the image can be described by a screen reader or assistive device. This dialog is non-modal, so it can remain open as you work in the document, allowing you to move quickly from image to image and assign metadata without repeatedly closing and opening the dialog. Or you can directly add the alt text to the specific instance of the image in the layout by selecting Custom from the Alt Text Source pull-down menu.

Specifying alt text from XMP metadata is the best choice in most cases, because the link between the alt text and the metadata in the file is dynamic. If the metadata changes, alt text is updated when you update the image link in your InDesign document. Not including alt tags for all of your images will result in errors later in the workflow when you run the Acrobat accessibility check. In the final PDF document, alt text appears as a tooltip when the user hovers over an image.

When images are placed on a page in a print layout, they do not necessarily need to be placed adjacent to the copy that refers to them. InDesign allows you to place a machine-readable reference to the image in the text by anchoring the graphic frame containing the image to an appropriate location within the text frame.

Each InDesign frame and object group displays a small blue square on its top edge. To anchor an object in an accessible location in the text flow without changing the original position of the object, click and hold the blue square, and then drag it to the desired location within the text and release. The blue square changes to an anchor icon indicating that the object is anchored.

Acrobat understands this order and will follow it in the exported PDF once you instruct it to do so in Acrobat. Drag the objects into the Articles panel, and release the mouse. Objects are listed in the order that you click them. Name the article when prompted to, or keep the default name Article 1. If an object has already been given a specific name in the Layers panel, it retains that name in the Articles panel. When adding a new article to the InDesign Articles panel, you must select Include When Exporting the default for the article to be properly tagged and ordered in the PDF file.

Organize your content in the Articles panel by dragging an item within an article up or down until all items are in the desired order. The reading order is from top to bottom.

Reordering in the Articles panel does not affect the position or appearance of items on the InDesign page. You can also add elements from different parts of your layout into an existing article by dragging them from the layout into the Articles panel, or selecting them and choosing Add Selection to Selected Articles from the Articles panel menu. Cross-references, hyperlinks, and bookmarks are conveniences to sighted readers, but are also essential navigation tools for the visually impaired.

These navigation mechanisms are the means by which users with disabilities move through a document and get an overview of its content and how that content is organized. You can link bookmarks to either text anchors bookmarks created when specific destination text is selected or pages bookmarks created when viewing a page in InDesign with no text selected.

When exported to PDF with the proper settings, the InDesign bookmarks and their organizational structure are matched exactly in the Acrobat Bookmarks pane and work as clickable links to the appropriate content.

PDF hyperlinks are created upon export for links created in the InDesign Hyperlinks panel, and any cross-references established using the InDesign Cross-references feature. Cross-references created in InDesign translate automatically to hyperlinks in the exported PDF document. With form-creation features in InDesign, there is support for tagging of certain interactive elements, such as form fields and buttons.

Each form element has both a name value and a description value that must be part of its definition. The description is essential for accessibility, because it acts as both the tooltip and as the alt text for the form item.

The form can also have a visible label for example, Name, Company, Phone on the page, but as a user tabs from field to field or box to box, only the information assigned to the form element is read out; the adjacent text is not. Make any necessary adjustments or corrections using the Move Up and Move Down buttons. Alternately, you can add your form elements to the Articles panel in the appropriate tab order, but double-checking the order in the Tab Order dialog is still a good quality control measure.

The Tab Order dialog lists the order that a user moves through a form with either the Tab key or an assistive device from top to bottom. Accessible PDF documents require, at a minimum, a document title and a brief description of the contents.

Which PDF type you choose depends upon whether or not your document contains interactive elements such as forms, buttons, audio, or video. Although the formatting is the same for both PDF types, they offer different options in their respective dialog boxes.. The Adobe PDF Print format exports bookmarks and hyperlinks but not buttons, audio, video, or animation. You can only opt to include the appearance of these interactive elements — not their functionality — or to not include them at all.

To activate bookmarking, hyperlinks, cross- references, and buttons, set the Forms and Media option to Include All. All other settings in the dialog are optional and subject to your specific needs or preferences.

You can then move on to the final few steps required in Acrobat. Looking at the tagging structure in the Acrobat Tags pane may help foster a better understanding of the connection between your InDesign preparation and the final PDF document.

Only the Tags panel ordering, as determined by the arrangement of content in the InDesign Articles panel, represents the reading order of the PDF content, regardless of the sequence shown in the Order panel or in the Acrobat Reflow mode.

InDesign has no corresponding setting, so you must set the language in Acrobat. You can make that change in the Initial View options of the Document Properties dialog. The structure created in the InDesign Articles panel is exported to the PDF file, but it is not automatically set as the order followed when tabbing through interactive elements like hyperlinks and form fields.


InDesign CC EPUB Fundamentals • Meet Anne-Marie Concepción

Using InDesign, you can start from scratch or convert existing materials to the following: Fixed-layout EPUB: EPUB is an e-book format. Learn about all the EPUB enhancements in InDesign CC. the EBook Export > General > Text Options are now free from any extra classes.


Export InDesign documents to an EPUB format.EPUB enhancements in InDesign CC

Japanese text support.

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